PDF | During its short history, Health Psychology has made substantial progress in establishing itself as a discipline. In particular, coping with chronic illness. _Morrison 4/6/07 AM Page 1 Val Morrison and Paul Bennett An Introduction to Health Psychology is a new Val Morrison and Paul Bennett An Introduction to Health Psychology is a new and stimulating European textbook providing a valuable and engaging introduction. Health Psychology emerged in the s as a response to a number of factors, one of them the changing pattern of illness and death in indus- trialized nations.
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THE BACKGROUND TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY. During the nineteenth century , modern medicine was established. 'Man' (the nineteenth-century term) was. Jane Ogden studied for a PhD in eating behaviour at the Institute of. Psychiatry, London. She then became a lecturer in health psychology at. Middlesex. A New Era for Health Psychology. Kenneth E. Freedland. Washington University School of Medicine. Health Psychology has been in the capable hands of Anne.
Health Psychology: A Textbook, 4th edition
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A History of the Development of Health Psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Health Psychology. Print Publication Date: Aug Subject: Sep DOI: Social and cultural factors are conceptualized as a particular set of stressful events being laid off, for example that may differently impact the mental health of people from different social environments and histories.
Despite its usefulness, there are issues with the biopsychosocial model, including the degree of influence that each factor has, the degree of interaction between factors, and variation across individuals and life spans. Key Terms biopsychosocial: Referring to the idea that the mind and the body are inseparable entities.
The biopsychosocial model of health and illness is a framework developed by George L. Engel that states that interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors determine the cause, manifestation, and outcome of wellness and disease. Historically, popular theories like the nature versus nurture debate posited that any one of these factors was sufficient to change the course of development.
Biopsychosocial model of health and illness: This diagram shows how biological, psychological, and sociological factors overlap to determine overall health.
Many disorders have an inherited genetic vulnerability. The greatest single risk factor for developing schizophrenia, for example is having a first-degree relative with the disease risk is 6. It is clear that genetics have an important role in the development of schizophrenia, but equally clear is that there must be other factors at play. Certain non-biological i. Psychological Influences on Health The psychological component of the biopsychosocial model seeks to find a psychological foundation for a particular symptom or array of symptoms e.
Individuals with a genetic vulnerability may be more likely to display negative thinking that puts them at risk for depression; alternatively, psychological factors may exacerbate a biological predisposition by putting a genetically vulnerable person at risk for other risk behaviors.
For example, depression on its own may not cause liver problems, but a person with depression may be more likely to abuse alcohol, and, therefore, develop liver damage.
Public health psychology: Expanding the horizons of health psychology
Increased risk-taking leads to an increased likelihood of disease. Social Influences on Health Social factors include socioeconomic status, culture, technology, and religion.
Such life events may predispose an individual to developing depression, which may, in turn, contribute to physical health problems. The impact of social factors is widely recognized in mental disorders like anorexia nervosa a disorder characterized by excessive and purposeful weight loss despite evidence of low body weight.
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The fashion industry and the media promote an unhealthy standard of beauty that emphasizes thinness over health. Cultural Factors Also included in the social domain are cultural factors.
For instance, differences in the circumstances, expectations, and belief systems of different cultural groups contribute to different prevalence rates and symptom expression of disorders. For example, anorexia is less common in non-western cultures because they put less emphasis on thinness in women. Culture can vary across a small geographic range, such as from lower-income to higher-income areas, and rates of disease and illness differ across these communities accordingly.
Culture can even change biology, as research on epigenetics is beginning to show.
For instance, research shows that individuals exposed to over-crowding and poverty are more at risk for developing depression with actual genetic mutations forming over only a single generation.
Application of the Biopsychosocial Model The biopsychosocial model states that the workings of the body, mind, and environment all affect each other. According to this model, none of these factors in isolation is sufficient to lead definitively to health or illness—it is the deep interrelation of all three components that leads to a given outcome.
Health promotion must address all three factors, as a growing body of empirical literature suggests that it is the combination of health status, perceptions of health, and sociocultural barriers to accessing health care that influence the likelihood of a patient engaging in health-promoting behaviors, like taking medication, proper diet or nutrition, and engaging in physical activity. Provided by: Boundless. Provided by: Wikipedia. Provided by: Wikibooks.The impact of social factors is widely recognized in mental disorders like anorexia nervosa a disorder characterized by excessive and purposeful weight loss despite evidence of low body weight.
Psychological and Neuropsychological Testing Codes for Psychologists
Increased risk-taking leads to an increased likelihood of disease. History Law Linguistics Literature. The biopsychosocial model of health and illness is a framework developed by George L. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or download.