This book is conceived as evidence supporting the qualities of dense, urban living, and as a hopeful antidote against sprawl. Necessity and investigation are. [Ebook PDF] Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl FOR DOWNLOAD FREE:redelocidi.ga?id=X. Windows phone with a waterproof feature like Sony Xperia phones RP 05 10 04 05 p. Total housing alternatives to urban sprawl pdf. Mirror Link #1.
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DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl Free in pdf format. Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl [Sakamoto Tomoko] on redelocidi.ga . *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book is conceived as evidence. collection of inventive projects. Download Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl pdf · Read Online Total Housing: Alternatives to Urban Sprawl pdf.
These are typical groups whose settlement in the capital area is hampered by the high prices in the housing market.
There is relatively little employer-provided housing, even though this would help people move into the capital region and also help them settle down. Moreover, employer-provided housing would also make employees more committed to their employer.
Housing production in Finland remains predominantly in the hands of Finnish developers, and over the decades practices have become entrenched.
One factor that explains the nature of housing policy and urban planning in Finland is that it was first after World War II that urbanisation got under way here and prosperity increased, and residential suburban areas were developed by public-private partnerships. Another important factor was Finnish welfare policy which put an emphasis on equitable housing, yet at the same time led to a lack of diversity in industrial housing production. This lack of diversity in current housing production is one of the main problems in the housing market today.
The majority of new housing consists of mass- produced multi-storey residential buildings, and from the consumer's viewpoint alternatives are hard to find in the market. In practice, the choice of dwelling is dictated by location and price, which in turn largely depends on the location.
In terms of their floor plan, fittings and materials, new dwellings are very uniform. Even in expensive and trendy properties that are carefully branded in view of a particular customer group, the dwellings themselves are ordinary. In mass- customised housing areas, the downloader's possibilities to have a say in the dwelling are generally limited to the choice of finishing materials, cabinet doors and domestic appliances that alternatives for which have all been decided beforehand.
In the rental market, the occupant's options are even slimmer, even though some experiments in participatory planning have been carried out.
The design of residential buildings is typically conservative. There is a general belief that occupants want things that are safe and familiar. There is fear that unusual solutions might scare away the customers and obstruct the resale market later on.
It is safer for the occupant to be flexible than for an expensive dwelling. Figure 2. The five stages of production are craft work, mass production, process enhancement, mass customisation, and co-configuration. The last stage is based on continuous collaboration and reconfiguration of the product between the producer network and the user.
Unaffordability is a Problem but Sprawl is a Terrible Solution
Although the five stages of production are the result of historical development, the first four of all co-exist today. The stages are not mutually exclusive, but complementary. Every technological revolution water power, motorisation, electricity, information technology have led to new opportunities for organising work and production. For example, the revolution in information technology is currently making a crucial difference in the division of labour, but also increasing the need for interaction and cooperation.
However, we are still just taking the first steps towards the fifth stage, co-configuration. Housing production in Finland consists typically of industrial mass production based on a concrete element system.
The most advanced form of production employed to date in multi-storey residential buildings is mass customisation. It has nevertheless been used relatively little and is more common in the production of detached houses.
The Finnish housing sector, which in this context covers urban planning, housing policy, housing production and housing market, has many actors. The problem is that no single actor is responsible for the overall workings of the system, nor have any general targets been set for it anywhere. Cooperation between different actors is infrequent and incidental.
The operating conditions of the sector are determined by the State through legislation and norms. Municipalities are responsible for land use policy, land use planning and building control. Banks and investors provide funding, developers and building companies construct, market and sell their products. The system is a complex network of codes and nodes of intersecting interests and actors. The key factors are economic trends, interest rates and the prevalent interests in housing policy.
All actors in the sector have their own ways of operating, their own aims and earning logic. The aims as such are good and useful, at least from each actor's own perspective.
However, sometimes the multitude of implemented aims leads to undesirable side effects for the occupants.
For example, an environment that meets every single norm regarding safety in traffic can be dull and unaesthetic. Similarly, complying with all the norms and standards of housing design does guarantee a healthy and safe environment, but can push up the price of dwellings.
New dwellings fitted with all possible conveniences may give the occupants a sense of a high standard of living, but will above all line the pockets of the developer who sells it. Risk management is a key factor in the operation of the various actors in the housing sector. All actors have their own ways of managing and outsourcing the risks involved in their operation.
One typical feature of the housing sector is that actors demand that other actors take risks, such as implementing experiments in housing policy, yet they are not willing themselves to take risks or to change their own modes of operation. The results can be seen in the inflexibility and dull character of the housing market, where supply dominates demand. This situation may be changing, however. The global economy also affects the Finnish housing market.
The economic downturn that began in was reflected quite rapidly in housing production in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
There are currently thousands of expensive, privately funded dwellings free from price regulation unsold in the area. Non-subsidised housing production has come to an almost complete standstill. The construction sector is facing a deep recession and mass unemployment. The Finnish housing industry has already turned to the State and the municipal sector, asking for measures to alleviate the situation. Cities in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area are in fact increasing the production of subsidised rental dwellings.
One serious issue bringing actors together is climate change. For example, the Climate Strategy for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area drawn up by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council and the four cities of the area sets the target that greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced by more than one third from current levels by the year This can only be achieved with a denser urban structure and traffic based on public transport, walking and cycling.
Moreover, the design, development and use of buildings should be guided by whole life-cycle costs, energy efficiency, versatility and degree of use. The project was launched in autumn and will continue until April The strengths of the project are reflexivity, interdisciplinarity, innovative research methods and the large number of collaborative actors and financers participating in it. In the URBA-project, sustainability is understood in its broad meaning referring to environmental, social and economical dimensions.
There is a need for assessment methods that take into account various dimensions of sustainability and concrete accepted criteria so that it becomes possible for decision makers to evaluate proposals. The central goal of the URBA project is to bring together actors in the housing sector in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and to initiate a collective brainstorming process to find new solutions to the conflicting needs of the various stakeholder groups.
This process takes place in two stages: 1 finding promising new urban housing concepts through international comparison, and 2 establishing a structured development process seminars, working groups for developing these further into viable new operating concepts and business models that are appropriate for the particular local context.
A sub-project of URBA is looking to draw up a set of criteria for evaluating the attractiveness of any given living environment and to create a tool for analysing it. The URBA project also aims to intensify connections between Finnish and international research in the sphere of housing and housing development with a view to furthering cooperation in the future.
Its final results will be presented in the form of a concise publication and an illustrated concept database with web- based maps.
In November the project published a book that gathered together the results and experiences from the first phase. The book Another Way to Dwell? Looking for new concepts for urban housing Norvasuo ed. It also discusses user experiences in the development of international housing concepts, their developers, and the role of consumers in the related processes. The URBA research group selected five concepts for further development. Target groups: newcomers, immigrants, students, low-wage employees, temporary workers, divorcees etc.
Target groups: modern city people, 'yuppies', singles, ITC workers, people who travel a lot, etc.
Mostly private houses with a front door facing the street and a small backyard garden. Target groups: families and those who want a private garden, but prefer urban living.
The dwelling can accommodate changes over time concerning styles of habitation and use of space. This represents a change from function-based design thinking towards organisation-based thinking.
These concepts are incommensurable as regards housing design, construction, and dwelling. They are not finished, fixed solutions to the housing problem, but examples of what can be achieved if we alter the prevailing system of urban planning and housing production in Finland.
These preliminary concepts are answers to broader development needs, such as densifying the urban structure, developing rental housing, combining housing with services, increasing the possibility of inhabitants' self-determination, increasing user-initiated flexibility of buildings, developing the management and control of the building process, and developing the sustainability of housing.
The idea was to integrate public participation in the innovation process as early as possible. The new housing concepts were evaluated by consumers in focus group discussions organised by the National Consumer Research Centre See Heiskanen et al.
The final analysis of the data gathered in these discussions is currently still under way. The focus groups consist of 4—12 people brought together to participate in a discussion on some area of interest.
The discussions are conducted by trained moderators, and the course of the discussions is documented. Focus groups produce research data by generating social interaction. This is done by assembling a group of participants to discuss a specific topic — in this case the new housing concepts — and observing how the ensuing discussion evolves. Heiskanen , see also Boddy, The underlying assumption is that meaning will be created in the course of the interaction e.
Organised and focused group discussions provide a context for participants to articulate their experiences and to elaborate on them in a collective sense- making process Heiskanen et al. Participants are encouraged to define the concepts and framings themselves. Focus group discussions also support collective sense-making processes; when dealing with complex topics, participants can pool their prior knowledge and experience. Thus, the viewpoints gained are more carefully articulated than, for example, immediate responses to survey questionnaires Heiskanen, ; Timonen, Focus groups are a frequently used method in marketing research, but today they are also used in serious research in the social sciences.
In the past few decades, they have established their role in sociology and communications research. More recently, they have also become increasingly popular in applied fields such as urban and community studies, development studies, and educational research e. They are also used increasingly for practical ends such as evaluation, community improvement and empowerment. Heiskanen et al. In addition to consumers, participants in the focus group discussions also included some housing and planning experts.
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Preliminary concepts were presented by researchers from the URBA project, who also made observations regarding the discussions. The discussions produced valuable research data the final analysis remains to be completed by the National Consumer Research Centre. One thing that came up in the discussions was cultural differences between international concepts and Finnish traditions regarding housing and dwelling.
For example, the researchers introduced the concept of James-serviced apartments, which originally comes from Switzerland. Some consumers expressed the opinion that such services linked to the dwelling would not have any demand in Finland.
In addition to this, many legislative, social and financial obstacles to the implementation of the preliminary concepts surfaced in the discussions.
This was just the kind of information the researchers wanted to gather. It was observed by the researchers, however, that focus group discussions would be more suitable for testing finished products and ideas rather than for developing new concepts. The task of introducing consumers to undeveloped, unfinished and incommensurable concepts was considered too difficult and demanding.
In the case of some concepts, the consumers were embarrassed to discuss them, because they did not understand what the concept was, or what it was for. It was also noticed that there was too little time and too many concepts; there was barely enough time for proper discussion. Furthermore, even if the participating consumers felt that the discussions were very interesting and they were enthusiastic about the topic, we may ask if the focus groups were participatory and empowering see also Heiskanen et.
The term 'intervention' is used here in the sense of a deliberate attempt, in this case by researchers, to effect a change in the reality being studied. This type of research is often termed 'action research', but because action research has its own established tradition, with particular theoretical and methodological tools and concepts see e.
Lewin, K. When describing the overall organisation of the process, we shall therefore discuss in somewhat greater detail the theoretical foundations underlying the design of our intervention process. The approach builds on the theoretical traditions of cultural historical psychology L.
Luria, M. Cole and activity theory A.
Total Housing Alternatives to Urban Sprawl
Leontjev, Y. Agency here means breaking away from the given frame of action and taking the initiative to transform it. According to Bandura , p. Belief in self-efficacy is not the developmental starting point, however, and external artifacts play a crucial role.
As Vygotsky has shown, "The development and use of artificial stimuli play an auxiliary role that permits human beings to master their own behavior, at first by external means and later by more complex inner operations" Vygotsky, , p. People develop and use external artifacts to reach a redefinition of the situation and to control their own actions.
They do so, however, not as isolated individuals but as members of a community. A number of individuals can collaboratively develop and use a shared artifact to enable them to redefine their situation and to master their joint actions in transforming the context of their daily work.
Virkkunen , p. An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. This interventionist methodology has already been evolving in the past three decades in the context of actual development projects of real-life organisations.
Since the mids, this has taken place mainly in the context of a particular method called Change Laboratory see e. Rather, we have been inspired by the theoretical ideas underlying the method, namely ideas as well as experiences on how to initiate and sustain a process of collective invention in the context of multi- organisational and cross-sectoral problem definition and solving.
Out of the 80 invitees 60 participated. The participants represented all major stakeholders and actors, such as legislators from the Ministry of the Environment, key officials and planners from the cities of Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa, and representatives from major construction companies, real-estate developers and investors.
The first type of 'stimuli' was comprised of views on the challenges of housing production in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. These were provided in the form of a statistical overview of the demographic development of the region, presented by the leading statistician Pekka Vuori from the City of Helsinki Urban Facts. Pekka Vuori's presentation emphasised the two main demographic challenges that need to be addressed in urban planning and housing production in the region: ageing population and the very significant increase in the number of migrants in the area.
Next, formulations of the problem and challenges were solicited from the seminar participants. Very Good. Great condition with minimal wear, aging, or shelf wear.
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Create a Want BookSleuth Can't remember the title or the author of a book?Hence, from a financial perspective, the first step in sustainable slum upgrading is to establish the cost limits Fergusson and Navarrete The discussions have been very lively and interesting, illuminating the future potentialities as well as present problems. In the Introduction, Oliver Hartwich describes Germany and Switzerland as the best examples of affluent countries that minimize housing price inflation.
There is a general belief that occupants want things that are safe and familiar.
Broos Egina. Journal of Consumer Policy, 28 2 , Browse more videos. Such is the case with this collection of 61 projects in 22 countries on four continents, examples born from last decade's building boom taking place around the world. They are not finished, fixed solutions to the housing problem, but examples of what can be achieved if we alter the prevailing system of urban planning and housing production in Finland.
There is fear that unusual solutions might scare away the customers and obstruct the resale market later on.