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8 Curriculum Table NDI 1 ST SEMESTER S/No Course Code Course Title Contact Hours L P CH Units week CU STB Plant and Animal Taxonomy STB STA Elementary Probability Theory 2 1 3 45 None . STB Morphology and Physiology of Living Things. 4. STC General Principles of Chemistry. 5. stb pdf NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY STB Plant and Animal Taxonomy 75 2 3 5 5 STB

Grass, Bamboo 2. Palmae e. Palms 3. Liliaceae e. Leguminosae e. Crotolaria, cassia 5. Combretaceae e. Sterculiaceae e. Malvaceae e. Hibiscus 8. Bombacaceae e. Rutaceae e. Anacardiaceae e. Maliaceae e. Compositae e. Tridax Introduction of basic Herbarium Technique Display monocotyledonous and dicotyledenous plants.

Identify and distinguish between the common families of flowering plants viz: monocotyledonous plants by making the specimens available to students: 1.

Botanical Garden with the required specimens Plant, presses. Cardboard, secateurs herbarium poisons. Bombax 9. Tridax Describe the technique for collecting and preserving common flora Identify the important species of each of the families listed above by using the binomial nomenclature students should be encouraged to know local names of the species whenever possible Collect common flora by applying the appropriate technique and Classify appropriately the flora collected General Objective 5.

Invertebrate diagnostic features 6. Practical: Illustrate identification of collected specimen. General Objective 7. Lectures resources Identify, draw and label examples from 7. Identify the protochorodates as a link between invertebrates and vertebrates Display these preserved vertebrates for practical analysis. Draw and label examples of vertebrates Show students the Magnifying glasses Preserved specimen Preserved specimen and tools for collection. Know the morphology, life cycles and economic importance of selected examples of the following divisions 1 Thallopyta including lichens 2 Bryophta 3 Pteridophyta 4 Spermatophyte 5 Gymnosperms 6 Angiosperms.

Know the morphology, life cycles and economic importance of selected examples of the following examples of the following Phyta 1 , Protozoa 2 Coelenterate 3 Pahtyhelminthes 4 Nernatodes 5 Annelida 6 Anthropoda 7 Mollusca. Know the morphology evolutionary relationship and economic importance of selected examples of phylum Chorda Protochordata and Euchordata a Protecttorate b Euchordata 1 Pisces Fishes 2 Amphibian 3 Reptile 4 Aves Mammalian.

Know the morphology and physiology of valves organs and systems in the animal kingdom. Lecture resources Collect samples of each group in 1. Tools for Herbarium collection and camera for snapping rear specimens. Continue to collect samples of each group in 1. Microscope Plants Preservation materials. Demonstrate and describe the various life cycles, morphology and economics importance of amoeba, protozoa, planaria, schristoma etc. Video films, monographs Prepare cultures of protozoan e.

Identify by using microscope the differences of the species Lecture Identify by using microscope the differences of the species mentioned in 2. Laboratory reagent. Salt solutions Laboratory apparatus. Identify by using microscope the differences of the species Collect samples of each group 2. Draw label sketches. Teacher's Magnifying glass, Microscope Preservative materials. Slow moving stream, dropping pipettes petral dishes. Examine protochordate e. Demonstrations and drawings.

Practical examination General Objective 4. Lecture notes chalkboard Draw and label the various organs and systems mentioned in 4. Magnifying glass. Models of the specimens as available in the museum. Dissecting kits. Draw and label the dissections in 4. Teacher's Observe under microscope and draw. Dissention guides on the various specimens available and dissenting kit.. Understand the arrangement of elements in the periodic table 3.

Understand chemical thermodynamics 4. Understand the properties and reactions of acids, bases and salts 5. Understand the fundamental concept of oxidation and reduction reactions 6. Understand surface phenomena and colloidal systems 7.

Trypanosoma - ii. Free living e. Hydra, Earthworm - They reproduce i. Asexually by binary fission, budding or multiple fission ii. Sexually by conjugation or gamete production. Sub-kingdom invertebrate is divided into 8: They are represented by 5 classes based on their locomotory organelles - Sporozoa e.

Amoeba - Mastigophora flagellata e. Euglena - Ciliophora ciliate e. They are mostly free living. The protoplasm is surrounded by a thin cell membrane. The cytoplasm is divided into an outer ectoplasm and an inner endoplasm. The endoplasm consist of single nucleus, a single or more contractile vacuole which helps in maintaining the water balance by expelling out excess water i.

They feed on diatom, algae. There are captured and engulfed by means of pseudopia. Once a prey is captured, a food vacuole is formed around it and its being digested. Within it, can survive for a considerable length of time.

This condition is referred to as ecosystem. Within it, the amoeba divides repeatedly to release a large number of daughter amoeba when it breeds. This is because of its pellicle. They have the shape of a slipper. Radiating round the body are numerous hairs like structure called cilia which are used in movement. Within the pellicle and before the cytoplasm are found numerous rod-like trichocysta.

They are used by the animal when feeding helps it to anchor itself and are also used for defense or capturing of prey in some species. Within the cytoplasm are found 2 nuclei, a small micro nucleus and a mega nucleus. It also possess 2 star shaped contractile vacuole situated anteriorly and posteriorly, located near the posterior and is a funnel shaped and groove.

It is ciliated. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission, sexual reproduction is by conjugation and is as follows: Conjugant with its own zygote nucleus separates and become known as ex-conjugant.

Trypanosome sp causes trypanosomiasis sleeping sickness ii. Plasmodium species causes malaria iii. Entamoeba histolytica dysentery. Eimeria causes coccidiosis in chicks some are commensals or free living e.

There is a muscular pharynx which leads into the gastro vascular cavity, the cavity is branched. Fertilization is internal. They are divided into 3 classes i. Turbellaria ii. Tremotoda iii. They have 2 sub classes: Monogyenea ii. Digyenea Sub class Monogenea - They have a weak oval sucker or none.

Gyrodactylus found on gills of fresh water fishes, polystoma, found in gills of tadpole and bladder of frog. Sub class: Digenea - Have 2 strong suckers, 1 around mouth and 1 ventral, but no hooks. Schistosoma, Fasciola, Hookworm, Tape worm etc.

They live in cool, clear and permanent waters, e. The worm is thin, slender and soft and of about 15mm long, with a blunt triangular anterior end head0 and a tapered body with dark pigment.

The head region bears 2 black eye spots. Mouth is on the ventral surface near the middle of the body. Through the mouth a pharynx or proboscis is extended to capture food. Excretory openings are minute, located laterally on the dorsal surface and are difficult to see. Genital pare are found on the ventral surface behind the mouth. The body is covered by epidermis and its ciliated. They lock of mouth, pharynx and intestines. There is no skeleton, no respiratory system.

Gaseous exchange is through the epidermis. Excretory system is made of large flame cells.

Sexually mature worm is monoecious. The male reproductive system includes , many hundred of small tastes, on both sides of the body, minute its efferens, a larger vas deferens, a median seminal vesicle and a muscular penis. The female reproductive consist of2 rounded ovaries, 2 oviducts, many yolks, a median vagina, genital atrium, copulatory sec.

Locomotion is by gliding with the anterior end forward and slightly raised or by crawling. A worm constricts into 2 usually behind the pharynx and the mission parts on each piece then grow and differentiate.

Planarians have great powers of regeneration when injured, naturally or experimentally, any part of the body can be replaced back. In sexual reproduction, 2 planarians, come together through their posterior ventral surfaces, and copulation is mutual, the penis of each is inserted into the genital atrium of the other, sperm from the male system of each passes to the female receptacle of the other. The worms then separate after mating.

Many zygotes and yolk later combine in a separate capsule or eggshell. Development is direct, no larval stage. It is found in the bile ducts and some times in other organs. The liver fluke has a leaf shaped body. It measures up to 30mm long. It is rounded anteriorly and blunt posteriorly. It has a terminal anterior sucker which surrounds the mouth and a ventral sucker which is behind and serves for attachment in the host.

Between the 2 suckers id the genital opening. Digestive system is made up to a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, 2-branched enteron. Excretory systems are highly developed in adult worm. Male reproductive system has 2 many branched testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland and penis. In worms and moist climate, the eggs hatched out about 9 days into larva. The larva miracidium is barely visible. The miracidium is multicellular, ciliated and with a pointed rostrum, with 2 eye spots.

It hatches in water and swims for not over 24hours, and dies unless it finds a certain suitable kind of snails bulimoides species, if the snail is found, it burrows into the soft tissues and lymph vessels of the snail enter, only one penetrates it, should many miracidia enter, the snails dies. The larva loses its saclike sporocyst. Within the sporocyst another form of larva called redia are formed. Each sporocyst produces elongate sac-like rediae, with a mouth and short gut.

In about 8 days they burst out and migrate to another organ liver0. The cercaria has a slender tail and a disk-shaped body, with both oral and ventral suckers. The cercaria burrows out of the snail to swim through the water by use of its tail. Few hours later, the cerceria settles on a grass blade or other vegetation near surface of water and losses its tails, and now become a metacercocia found in a tough cyst.

The encysted larva metacercaria remain viable for weeks or months on grass or damp hay. When such infected vegetation is eaten by a sheep or any suitable host, the cyst are digested off and the larvae burrow into the intestinal well and then to liver.

Week 3: Hydrozoa - They exist in polyp form - Enteron or gastro vascular cavity lacks portion i. Hydra, Obelia. Scyphozoa - They are the jelly fishes - They are chiefly free-swimming medusae of bell or umbrella form.

With strong 4-part radial symmetry. Aurelia common jellyfish. Anthozoa - They are the sea corals, or sea anemones.

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Metridium etc. It is slender flexible about mm long, with delicate tentacles at its oral end. It lives in cool clean and usually permanent freshwater of lakes, pounds and streams, attaching itself to stones, sticks, or vegetation. The body is a cylindrical tube with a basal disk or foot. The mouth is a small opening on a conical hypos tome surrounded by tentacles. The mouth leads into the digestive cavity called enteron. The whole animal is very flexible the body may extend as a slender tube, bed in any direction or contract to a short form.

The side of the body may bear lateral buds that take part in asexual reproduction at times, it may bear other rounded projections it ovaries or testes for sexual reproduction. The well of the body and tentacles consist of 2w cell layers diploblastis.

A thin epidermis, made of cuboidal cells, which is protective and sensory, is function and inner thicker gestrodermis made of tall cells and serves mainly in digestion. Between these two layers is a thin non cellular mesoglea. Which provides an elastics framework for both the body and the tentacles support? Hydra lives attached by its basal disk to objects in water, and still moves freely.

Hydra exhibits different modes of locomotion, i. During asexual reproduction, bud forms as a projection about midway on the body wall. This lengthens acquires blunt tentacles and a mouth, later hit constructs and detaches at the base to become an independent hydra.

Budding may occur at any season, with adequate supply of food and water, it suitable normal condition. Sexual reproduction, this takes place during unfavorable condition. The gonads are the only reproductive organs these are temporary structures on the sides of the body. The ovaries produces eggs, while tastes produces sperm cells. Both gonads arise from cells in the epidermis. Although Hydra is dioecious, cross fertilization is the rule.

The tastes of one hydra matures earlier that the ovaries and releases its sperm cells which travels in the water and this then fertilizers the eggs cells form a zygote which soon divides and ruptures and settles in the bottom of the water till when the condition become more favorable it emerges as a new hydra. Obelia exist as a whitish or brownish colony which consist of a root-like base called hydrorhiza with slender branched stems from which hundreds of 2 kinds of polyps grows, these are the feeding polyp or hydranth, with 20 or more solid tentacles fixed in a transparent vase-shape hydrotheca which houses and protects it.

Hydranth captures small animals by use of their tentacles. The second type of polyps is the reproductive polyp or gonandium. It is cylindrical and converted by a transparent gonotheca on which lateral buds form from and develops into medusae.

The medusae then escape to float and feed in the3 sea. The medusae are of 2 different sexes, and their gonads develop in the enteron where the eggs and sperm are released into the water. There in water, each zygote develops into a minute ciliated planula larva, which later grows to a small polyp. The small polyp later grows to begin a new colony by asexual budding. The alteration of sexual and asexual generations is referred to as metagenesis. Jelly fishes. Actininica Used in laboratories for research purpose.

Have metagenesis in life cycle stage. They are represented by 3 classes. Polycheata, e. Structure of a Clamworm Nerers Clamworm lives near the low-trade line. It is nocturnal and hides by day time beneath stones or in a temporary hole, only bringing crawls over the sand, or swims by lateral wriggling of the body. It has a long, slender, greenish body, round above and flattered ventually. It is compose of or more similar somites. The head is district and is formed by the prostomium and peristomium.

Within the body well is the coelome cavity liend by peritone and divided by septa between the somites. The cirenlatory system consist of a dorsal and ventral vessel which branes into glit, nephridia, body well and parapodia.

Respiration is by capillaries in the parapodia and body well. Excretion is by pared nephirodia, but differs from those of the earthworms. Nervus system includes, a brain, nerves in the head and tentacles and a pair of ganglia and lateral nerves in each sominte. The prostomium bears 2 short prostomiel tentacles, a pair of stubby conicol palps laterally located and 2 pairs of small eyes.

The peristomium surrounds the ventral mouth and bears 4 pairs of peristomiel tentacles. The are sensory organs of touch, smell and sight. They help in finding food as well as avoiding predators. On both side of each somite is a flat parapodium. The parapodia are used for locomotion. Anus is located in the lost somite, on it are 2 soft sensory and cirri sexes are separate, and forms gonads only during breeding season. Eggs and sperm are formed from cells of the loelomic peritoneum, fertilization occurs in the see.

Zygote develops into a cilicted trochophore larve.

Structure of Lumbricus Terrestris earthworm They have few satae per segment. The body of Lumbricus terrestris is long and cylindreal, topered at both adg. Maith is located on the 1st somite and is surrounded by a fleshy lobe prostomium , while the annus is on the last somite.

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Clittelum is a conspicuous glandular swelling over somites , it secretes material that form cocoons to contern eggs. On each somite with the exception of the 1st and last are 4 pairs of minute britle like setae that project slightly on the ventral and lateral surfaces.

Satae serve as hold fast devices when a worm is in its burrow or morning on grand. There are other openings on the body other than the month and arun, and these are dorsal pore on somite 7 or 9 down to the oral end, these connect the body cavity to the exterior.

A Nephridiopora excretony opening ii. Openings of seminal receptacles. Openings of the 2 oviducts. Openings of paired sperm ducts. The body is covered by a thin transparent cutide, it is secreted by the epidermis, beneath it are many unicellular glands which produce mucus. The inner body well is collered by a thin smooth epithelium peritoneum. The body form is maintained by the elasticity of the body well over the organs and fluids within it. The characteristics.

Movement of the earthworm is due to contraction of the corruler muscles which elongates the body and contraction of the longitudinal muscles which shortest it.

A cross section of the body wall show 2 concentric tubes i. The coelom contains watery coelomic fluid with free amoebocytes. Digestive tract is of month, buccalcevity, pharynx, oesophaysn, cropper proventriculus, gizzard, san intestive and an ams food is mainly dead leaves, gresses t. Circulatory system consists of blood which consists of a fluid plasma that contains free colourless amoebocyts. The plasma is red in colour. Blood flows to and from all parts of the body in a system of closed blood vessels with capillaries.

It has no organized respiratory system. Blood in capillaries close to the cutide receives oxygen and gives up C Life-Cycle Earthworm is monoecious, both sex organs are ventrally and anterrorly located.

The male gonads include 2 pairs of minute testes, a cilicted sperm funnel connected to a short vas afferens, connected also to a vas deferens that leads to the male pore. The female gonads include a pair of overses that discharges nature ova into the coelom and are collected by 2 oviducal funnels with egg SCCS, connected to the oviducts. The system also includes 2 pairs of seminal receptacles where sperm received are stored until need to fertilizer eggs in cocoons.


They reproduce through much of the year, mostly in worm moist weather. Mutiny occurs at night and takes hrs 2 worms stretch out from their burrous and bring their vsentral anterior surfaces together, with the anterior aids pointing in opposite direction. The clitellum on each, grips somite of the other and less contact of somite 26 on each is made with 15 of the other. Each worm secretes a slime tube about itself, and on each worm a pair of seminal grooves forms along which mosses of sperm pess to enter the seminal receptacles of the other, aster this, the worms separate.

Each worm later produces cocoons containing eygs for each cocoon, a slime tube is secreted. Around the citellum and within the cocoon forms a separate secretion over the clitellum. The tube and cocoon then slip forward, to be fertilized while passing over the seminal receptacles, and as the worm withdraws from the tube, the cocoon closes into a lemon-shaped case.

That is then deposited in damp earth. Phylum arthropoda Characteristics - They are bilaterally symmetrical. They are divided into the following subphylum 1. Sub-phylum chedicerate classes i. Merostomata e. Pycognodie e. Arechnidan e. Sub-phylum mandibulate antennate classes i.

Crustecea e. Insect e. Chilopoda e. Diplopoda e. Pauropoda e. Symphyla e. Class insects is the largest and has the largest representatives. Order portura e. Acerentulus barberi ii. Order — collembolan springtails e.

Order- diplura japugids e. Order-thysanura bristletaits e. Subclass- pterygota. Order — odonate e. Order- ephemeropter e. Order — orthoptera e. Order- dermaptera e. Order-plecoptera, e. Order- isopteran e. Order- embioptera e. Order-mallophage e. Order- Anoplura e. Order- psocoptera e. Order-hempitera e. Order- homoptera e. Order — thysanoptera e. Order- mecoptera e. Order- newropera e. Order — Lepidoptera e. Order- diptera e. Order- siphonaptera e. Order- coleopteran e. Order- hymenoptera e.

Phylum echinodermata - Radially symmetrical in adults, bitoteral in larvoe. Subphlylum pelmatozoa. Class cerpordea. Class cystoidea. Subphylum eleutherozoa.

Class holothuriodea e. Structure of starfish asterias vulgaris The body consists of a central disk and fice tapering rayws, or arms. The axes of the aims and termed radi, and the spaces between them are called inter-radi.

On the upper or aborel surface are many calcareaous spines, which ae parts of the skeleton. The anus is a minute opening near the centre of the abord surface. The mouth is in the middle of the lower or orel surface, surrounded by a soft peristomieal membrane. A media ambularel groove, borded by large sines, extends along the oral surface of each arm, and from it many slender tube feet extends in rows.

On tip of each arm is a small soft tentacle and light sensitive eyespot. The whole body of the animal is covered by ciliate epidermis, beneath it is the endoskeleton inside the skeletom is the large coelom which is fileld with a lymph-like fluid containing free amoebocyles that helps in circulation, respiration and excretion.

Digestive system is made up of mouth stomach, a short intestine and arms. Nerves system is a circumorel nerve running and nerve cords in the arms. Sexes are separate. A pair of guide is in the coelom of every arm, and a minute duct from each opens aborally on the central disk.

WEEK 5: Adenophorea Aphasmiodia ii. Secernentea Phasmidia e. When fresh the speeimen is yellow purple in colour. The body is slender and round, temporary at both sides, covered with smooth tough elastic cutide which bears minute structure along its body externals 4 while long one on dorsal are vertral and 2 cm lateral sides.

Mouth opens at the anterior end, between 3 rounded fleshing lips ams is a transverse slot close to the posterior and of the vertral surface. A nature female may contain 23million of eggs at a time and lay , or more per day.

No intermediate host is needed to complete the cycle. C that supports the body. Their median fins is supported by cortilagince u in rays. They have soft, smooth skin with many unicellular masus glands but no scale no true jows and no paired funs Their math is ventronteriorly located They olfactory organs are pared but with single median operating on smooth Their skill and visveral arcles are carto laginous Notochared persists They have 2 chamered heart They have pairs of gills in latoel saclike pauches They have 2 kidneys Theie brain is different treted with 8 or 10 pairs of cranial nerves.

They are poikilothermic Have separate sexes hsve single gonad without duct, fertilization is external, development is direct in Hagfishes while Lampreys have long larval stage. In males,the pelvic fins are with claspers. Anura ii. Candeta iii. Chelonia ii. Squamata iii. Crocodilia e. CLASS AVES Body covered with feathers have 2 pairs pf limbs fore limbs modifies as wngs for flight and hand limbs for perchaing walking or wimming each foot usually with 4 tres shanks and toes shecthed with cornified skin.

They are divided into the following subclasses and orders. Sub-class theria: Eutherra placental mammals Order: Dermoptera e. Chiroptera e. Primates e. Pholidote e. Lagomorpha e. Rochertra e. Cetacea, e. Carnivare e. Srewe e. Hyracordea e. Perissodactly oddtoed e. Artrodactyle even toed e. They are mostly oviparous, have a trochopore and veligar larvae or parasite stage. Have the following classes i. Class monoplacophora e. Class Aplacophora e. Class polyplacophora e.

Class caphophoda e. Class gastropoda e. Class Bivalvia e. Helix asperses is the common garden snail it has a fleshy heed which bears 2 pairs of retractile The head jons directly to a muscular foot on top of which as the shell the genital pore opers on the right side of the body besides the head, also there is a small anus and a larger respiratory pore located in the soft mantle margn at the edge of the shell.

Digestive system includes the mouth, pharyx with a dorsal horny, stomach, intestine and an anus land snail has a lung for respiration which repleces the gill of other gastropods and mothus. The heart has I aurich and I vertricle.

A single kindney dreams from the pericardial cavity around the heart and discharges into the mouth cavity. Each individual is with a combined male and female reproductive system. They are nocturcl, most active at night. Copulation is reciprocal the penis of each is reserted into the vagina of the other for transfer of a spermatophore, the snails the separate.

Each, later deposits 1 or more beetles of geletinais covered eggs in demp places or shallow slantory burrows development needs many days and its direct the young emerges as minute snails. This is the form and structure of an organism or of a part of an organism it is the study of the form and structure of organisms.

This stimuli are either external derived from temperature, moisture light, gravity, contect, pressure, oxygen supply, salt concentrations, and odors or internal stimuli resulting from the quality of food, water or wastes in the body and from factoghe pain, disease, etc some stimuli act directly on cells or issues and elicit a direct response e.

A receptor is a cell or organ having a special sensitivity to some kinds of stimulus e. Each nerve cell consists of a ventral portion containing the nucleus, known as the cell body and one or more structures known as axons and dendrites the dendrites afferent are short extersions of the cell body and are involved in the reception of stimuli.

The exon efferent on the other hand, is usually a single elongated extension it is especially important in the transmission of nerve impulses from the region of the cell body to other cells. In all vertebrates, the nervous system has a comparable embryonic origin and is always single, hollow and dorsal to the digestive tract.

The vertebrate nervous system is divided into 2. The central nervous system C. S with large anterror brain and a spinal cord ii. The peripheral nervous system consisting of the cranial and spinal nerves. The cranial nerves connect to the brain by passing through openings in the skill, or cranium. S contained within the skill. It is the most specialized organ of the human body. It is the control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and other vital activities necessary for survival.

All human emotions, including love, hote, feor, anger, election and scdness are controlled by the brain. The brain makes us conscious, emotional, and intelligent. An adult human brain is a 1. The brain is divided into 3 orations i. The fore brain consist of the offertory lobes, cerebrum and hypothalamus. The mid brain narrow and short with thick walls which connects the hindbrain and forebrain together. It consist of the optic lobes.

The hindbrain consist of 3parts i. The process occupied by cerebrospind flaid. A cross section of the spinal cords it is divided into 2 partias, an outer and inner partions. The outer pation contens white metter consisting of axons and dedrites. The inner partion is H-shape, it contains grey matter and cell bodies of meter neurous.

Each spind nerve, before it attelles to the spinal cord, divides into dorsal root contens nerve cells and before it enters the spinal cord form a ganglion containing cell bodies of nerve cells sensory heureus. The dorsal root carries impulses from the body to the spinal cord. The creniel nerves crise from the brain, while the spinal nerves crise from the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of somotic nerves system and autonomic nerves system.

The nerves sends impulses from the external stimuli to the C. S and relay responses from the C. S to the skeletal muscles of the body i. S and connects to different internal organ. The autonomic nervous system consists of 2 parts i. These consists of 2 rows of nerve tissues or ganglia immg the sides of the spinal column the 2 systems helps in checks and balances of some vital organs such as heart, eye, lungs, kidney etc.

After the reflex action is completed, the impulse reaches the brain e. The stimulus hot pains then initictecs nerve impulses which are sent through the sensory neurone afferent in the nerve cord.

The impulses are then transmitted through synapse into the intermediate neurone in the spinal cord, form thre into the motor neurons which then transmit the impulses to the muscles the impulses cause stimulation of the boceps muscles flexor to contract and the triceps muscles to relex the hot object is immediately dropped this action takes a fraction of second to complete. Examples of reflex actions are here sneezing, canling etc.

In invertebrates such as those in the phyla of platyheliumathes nemctode, aunelida to the arthropoda, large voluje of body fluid flow and battle numeranus cells, these serve as their transport medium.

The food and oxygen needed for these crimids ids distributed in the body fluid to all living cells the waste products is then carried also in the body fluid to the excretory organs for excretion. Their excretory organs lie freely in the body space coelom therefore their excretory organ is not supplied by blood vessels as seen in vertebrates.

The heart is the ergne of the covenlertary system it is divided into 4 chambers up the right and left atrium, and the right and left ventricle the walls of these chambers are made of a special muscle called mydar-dium which contains continusly and rlythmically to pump blood.

They lack miclens, they live for short time theylive for about 3 maths, they are destroyed by the cells of the liver spleen and renewed in the nicorrow of the long bones the are the mostnumeras of the blood cells.

C they are capable of amoeboid movement and can squeeze through narrow speces from the blood vessels into body issues they are fewer than the R.

C they can move into the site of infection, eight becteria, and produces cutitoxm which neutralizes poisers produced by disease producing crganisms that infect the body. These are ling fragment of cells, they are nan unclected, and colourless. They are formed in the bone marrow. They are the surce of thromboplastion which mitetes blood clotting. THE HEART It is a muscular pumping organ of the blood it lies at the centre of the thoracre cavity in the pericardid cavity the heart of man is can-shaped and divided into 4 cham,bers, 2 atric and 2 ventricles below the right auride leads into the right ventride and guarded by the tricuspid valve, while the left circle leads into the ventride and gucruded by the bicuspred or mitred velve these valves prevent blood rom flowing backwerks.

There is no communication between the right and left sides of the heart, this makes the heart to fuction as a dumple pump. The right ide pumps deoxyge rated blood to the lungs, while the left side pumps oxygen feet blood from the arota to all parts o the body. During each heartbeat about of blood are pumped out of the heart. Three types of blood vessels form a complex network of tubes through the body. Arteries carry blood crocy rom the heart and vens carry it toward the heart capillaries are the troy liks between the conteries and vens where oxygen and nutrients diffuse to body tissues.

Arteries have thicker wells than vens to withstand the pressure of blood beny pumped from the heart blood in the vens is at a lower pressure, and so vens have valves to prevent blood from lowing backwards the smallest are the capillaries and only visible by microscope.

Pulmonary circulation. In pulmancry circulation deoxygencted blood from the heart and upper limbs and tissues of the body trevels from the right atrium of the heart to the right vetride from there it is puscled through the pulmoncry certery to the lung in the lung the pulmoncry cirtery divides to form pulmonary capillary region of the lung, to be oxygencted Newly oxygencted blood the flows into the pulmacy vens, to the left trium of the heart function to the left ventride the contraction of the left ventrice sends blood into the aorta, campletry the conculation.

System circulation The heart ejects oxygen rich blood under high pressure out of the left ventride through the largest cirtery the aorta smaller arteries branch off from the aorta to various parts of the body this oxygenated blood trevels to various organs and issues of the body as such losing its oxygen to become deoxygenated before retuning back to the heart and the circle start all over agen.

Unicellular and some multicelled animals, such as sponge, jellyfish, sea anemone, flat wormes, and roundiomd, do not have a circulatory system. All their cells are able to abserb nutriets, exchange gesses, and expel wases through firect contact with either the outside or with a digestive tract. In more complex invertebrates, they have a wide range of circulatory system designs their circulatory systems are classifies as either open or closed.

Example, open system is found in seasters, spoders, and certipedes these all lack capillaries, the blood bothers the issues directly in closed systems, the blood is confored to a system of blood vessels.

Invertebrates with closed systems include segmented worms squids and octopuses. All vertebrates have closed circulatory systems. These systems are classified by the number of chambers in the heart, which determines the basic configuration of blood flow fish for instance have 2 chambered hearts with one strium and one vertricle.

The blood pumped from the vertride trevels through arteries to the gills, where it diverges into capillaries and exchanges geses leaving the gills, the capillaries reconvese into blood vessels carrying oxygected blood to the rest of the body, where the vessels cyam diverge into capillaries before recovering again into vens carrying deoxygercted blood that return to the heart. From and other amphibians have 3 chambers hearts, 2 atriums and are vertride blood pumped from the vertride enters a forket artery one fork, i.

The other for systemic circulation, leads to the rest of the body, blood from the point monoy circulation enters the atrium, while blood from the systemic circulation enters the right strim. Although there is some mixing of oxygended and deoxygencted blood in the ventricle, there is a ridge with the vertride which assures that most of the oxygected blood is diverted to the systemic arculation and most of the deoxygenated blood goes to the joulmanary circulation in reptiles this rige is more developed, forming a partial wall.

In crocodiles the well is complete, forming a four chambered heart like that found in mammds and buds. From the body of animals. An impotent function of excretion is to dispose off waste nitrogenous materials A second function is to regulate water balance.

Living organisms produce many excretory products during there metabolic activities. Some are harmful if left to remain in the bodies of living organisms. Contractile vacuole, flame cell, nephritis, malt pighian tubules and kidneys, lungs, skin are the excretory structures n animals. Excretion protozoans, excretion is by contractile vacuole. It is a small cavity found in the cell of fresh water protozoa,it helps to flatworms such as planana, tapeworms and sckistosme, the organ of excretion is the flame cell.

The flanecell cnsists of two longitudinal concls with network of ducts which branch to all parts of the body. Other invertebrates such as the ecrthworms the organs of excretion are the Nephridis. A pair of nephridis is located in each segment except the 1st 3 and the last segments. Each nephridium consists of five particus namely nephrostome, narrow tube, middle tube, wide tube and muscular tube. Each nephrostone is located in the body cavity coedom of one segment while the rest coiled parts of nephridum are embedded in the body cavity of the segment behind it.

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In risects such as the cockroaches malpighicu tibules is the excretory organs arises from the junction between the midgut and lindgut. Each tubute cousists of two perts, the distel and proximal end. Internally, mdpighian tubule is lined by glandular epillelium with a layer of microvillo mclpighicu tubules lie in the body cavity hcemocoel and are bothed by blood.

In vertebrates such as mammals mam , kidneys are the organs for the excretiin of all nitrogenus wastes from the body structure of kidney. There are 2 kidney which lie in the abdominal well the left kidney is slightly higher in position than the right one.

Each kidney is bear shaped and dare red in colour and is surrounded by librous capsule and fets which keep it in position. A cross-section of the kidney shows that it consists of three particules cortex medulla and pelris. The cortex is the outer layer consisting of molpighian bodies and tubules medulla is the inner layer consisting of uriniferans tubules. The medulla projects inwords to form pyramids the niferaus tubules open into the pelvis thragh the pyramids. Pelvis leads into the ureter.

The ureter leads into the urinary bladder and the urinary bladder leads into the urethra the structure responsible for the formation of urin is the nephron kidney tubule. These capillaries write at one end to form an efferent arteriole, cadled glomerulus. The nephran consisits of 3 partians called, proximid convoluted tubule, loop of heile and distel convoluted tubule.

Urea is soluble in water and is carried in solution in the plasma to the kidneys by rend artery. These filtrate passes into the proximal tubule where all amino acids glucose and large hormoues, vitamins, water and mineral selts are recbserbed into the body. After this recbscrption the filtrate passes into the loop of henle where much of the water is recbsorbed to the body osmotic regulation of the body fluid.

The filtrate continues its journey to the distel convoluted tubule and collecting duct where further recbsortion of water and selt takes place. This process selecting what to return to the body is called selective recbsorption. After this recbsorption, theflowd in the kidney tubule is called urine. The urine is emptied into the pelvis, from the pelvis, the ureter posses the urine into a mascular urinary bladder where it is stored temporarily and leter disschcrged through the urethra to thr artside function of the kidneys.

The liver is the largest gland in the body of vertebrates it is darle-red, spongy and lobed. The liver is hung from the postenor surface of the diaphragm by a ligament and overlaps the stomach.

Underside of the right lobe is the gall bladder which contains the bile the is secreted from the bile duct which leads from the liver to the duodenum. The liver perverts organic toxims produced by bacteria from reaching toxic levels in the body it converts the toxre products to non-toxie compound which are later excreted by the kidneys.

This is the surface coveny of the body in man, it is about mm thick except that of the palm and soles which are about 6mm thick the skin is the most extensive organ in the body. It consists of 2 layers if epidermis and an inner derms the epidermis is divided into 3 layers cornitied granular and malpighicu kyer the derms is a thick layer of connective issues.

It consists of blood vessels swect glads, sebacews glads, har follicles seory cells and fotty cells. Functions of the skin. Others are multicellular. The multicellular are either filamentons or colong. Classification The division phycophyta is divided into the following classes: Simple organisms protists from which all other plants have been though to evolved e. Chlorophyceac green algae. Possess only green pigment.

Volvox, 4. Spirogyra, Chlomydomonas, etc. Bacillario Phyceac Diatoms. Mosthly free-floating, boat shaped, rod-shaped disc-shaped e. Phaeophyceac brown. Possess brown pigment fucoxan thin e. Fucus, Laminaria. Rhodophyceac red. Possess red pigment phyco-erythrin. Diatoms These are mostly one-called and of variety of forms.

The single cells may form filaments or colonies. They are found in fresh as well as salt water and in ground. Diatoms are boat — shapped, rod-shaped, disx-shaped, wedge- shaped, oval- shaped rectangular-shaped e. The wall of the diatom cell is made of two halves or values, an older one called eqitheca fitting closely over the younger value called hypotheca inner value.

The valves are made of pectin impregnated with silica. They have numerous fine lines which are really very fine dats which are radially symmetrical in the centric round diatoms Centrales and bilaterally symmetrical in the elongated diatoms pennales.

In some general, there are ingrowths of the wall called central or polar module according to position. A line actually series of minute openings called raphextends from central to the polar module. The protoplasm consists of a thin layer of cytoplasm within the cell wall.

One large or many small yellow to golden-brown plastids of varied shaped and sizes, a central nucleus suspended by cytoplasmic threads or a broad cytoplasmic band, and a central vacuole. The colour of plastids is due to a pigment called diatomin in addition to chlorophyll. Pyrenoids may or may not be present.

If present, they are without the starchy envelope. Reserve foods are globules of fats and insoluble complex substance called volution. No starch in diatom. Vegetative — usually occur at might the protophlasm grows and divides into two resulting in the separation of the two valves. Each of the half cell forms a new valve against the old one fitting into it, division and valve-formation continue one after the other. The result is one set of cells gradually become smaller and smaller.

Asexually- this is by formation of auxospore. When a particular minimum size is reached, a reversion to original size takes place through the formation and activity of a special cell called auxospore, which is produced in variety of ways: When valves separates, the protoplast escapes and become an auxospore.

It grow to its max, size then form new valves. The protoplast divides into 2, each daughter protoplast an auxospore grows and form new valves. Sexual- this is by conjugation. The protoplast of two cells escape and act as gametes. They fuse to produce a zygote which behaves as an auxospore. It grows and produce valves. Alternatively, two contiguous diatom cells form two gamtes each. The gamete fuse in pairs forming two zygotes which act as auxospores.

The auxospores grow and help the diatoms to return to their original sizes. This is a unicellular organisms with one end blunt anterior and the other tapering posterior.

There is a single flagellum at the blunt end. The body is covered by pellicle consisting of non-living material secreted by the cytoplasm.

Rod-shaped chloroplasts radiating from a central. The central zone has a mass of paramylum granules consisting of polysac chandes. Similar granules are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.Know the general classification of the animal kingdom 6. Subphylum eleutherozoa. Crabs, Insects - They exist by either - i.

Entrepreneurship Development. Sometimes it so happens that although the conjugation hyphae meet, no fusion of gametes take place. Order portura e. Order- coleopteran e. The second type of polyps is the reproductive polyp or gonandium.

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